Now that you have understood from Darken to Linear Burn, the thing to cheer up now is that you don’t have to remember anything from Lighten to Linear Dodge. This is because it works exactly opposite to how the above blend modes works. For example, Lighten works exactly opposite of how Darken works.
As you might have guessed its working, unlike Darken, it lightens the image.
Works exactly opposite of how Multiply works. In Adobe’s words: Looks at each channel’s color information and multiplies the inverse of the blend and base colors. The result color is always a lighter color. Screening with black leaves the color unchanged. Screening with white produces white. The effect is similar to projecting multiple photographic slides on top of each other.
9: Color Dodge
Works exactly as screen, but it decreases the contrast also.
10: Linear Dodge
Works same as Screen but in increases brightness additionally.